1. The orbital path of another satellite is shown in the sketch. In which positions A through D does the satellite have the greatest KE? The greatest PE? The greatest total energy?
2. Why does the force of gravity change the speed of a satellite when it is in an elliptical orbit but not when it is in a circular orbit?
1. KE is maximum at the perigee A; PE is maximum at the apogee C; the total energy is the same everywhere in the orbit.
2. In circular orbit, the gravitational force is always perpendicular to the orbital path. With no component of gravitational force along the path, only the direction of motion changes—not the speed. In elliptical orbit, however, the satellite moves in directions that are not perpendicular to the force of gravity. Then components of force do exist along the path, which change the speed of the satellite. A component of force along (parallel to) the direction the satellite moves does work to change its KE.